WordPress Post from Front End using REST API and Vue.js

This post is a simple proof of concept for using the new WordPress REST API to submit a new post draft from the front end. The form and user inputs are built using the Vue.js framework and vue-cli to create a simple Webpack build configuration.

Environment

This example was created using a fresh install of WordPress 4.7 served by XAMMP on Windows 10.
Nodejs version 6.9.1
NPM version 3.10.8
vue-cli version 2.6.0
git version 2.7.0

Plugin Development

Change to the plugins directory. For example,

cd c:/xampp/htdocs/wordpress/wp-content/plugins

Create the directory for the new plugin. For example,

mkdir wp-api-vuejs-poc

Entry Point

Create a plugin entry point php file in this new plugin directory. For example,

# change to the new directory
cd wp-api-vuejs-poc

# create a new file
touch wp-api-vuejs-poc.php

Add the following php code to the plugin entry point. At the very least, add the comment block at the top to register the plugin with WordPress.

wp-api-vuejs-poc.php
<?php
/**
 * Plugin Name: WP API Vue.js Proof of Concept
 * Plugin URL: http://example.com
 * Description: WordPress plugin to draft posts from the front end using the new REST API and Vue.js
 * Version: 1.0
 * Author:
 * Author URI: http://example.com
 * Text Domain: wp-api-vuejs-poc
 */

if ( ! defined( 'ABSPATH' ) ) {
    exit; // Exit if accessed directly.
}

if ( ! class_exists( 'WP_API_Vuejs_PoC' ) ) :

/**
 * Main WP_API_Vuejs_PoC Class.
 */
final class WP_API_Vuejs_PoC {

    /**
     * The single instance of the class.
     */
    protected static $_instance = null;

    /**
     * Ensures only one instance of WP_API_Vuejs_PoC is loaded or can be loaded.
     */
    public static function instance() {
        if ( is_null( self::$_instance ) ) {
            self::$_instance = new self();
        }
        return self::$_instance;
    }

    public function __construct() {
        $this->define_constants();
        $this->includes();
    }

    /**
     * Define Constants.
     */
    private function define_constants() {
        $this->define( 'WAVP_PLUGIN_PATH', plugin_dir_path( __FILE__ ) );
        $this->define( 'WAVP_PLUGIN_URL', plugin_dir_url( __FILE__ ) );
    }

    private function define( $name, $value ) {
        if ( ! defined( $name ) ) {
            define( $name, $value );
        }
    }

    /**
     * What type of request is this?
     *
     * @param  string $type admin, ajax, cron or frontend.
     * @return bool
     */
    private function is_request( $type ) {
        switch ( $type ) {
            case 'admin' :
                return is_admin();
            case 'ajax' :
                return defined( 'DOING_AJAX' );
            case 'cron' :
                return defined( 'DOING_CRON' );
            case 'frontend' :
                return ( ! is_admin() || defined( 'DOING_AJAX' ) ) && ! defined( 'DOING_CRON' );
        }
    }

    public function includes() {
        if ( $this->is_request( 'frontend' ) ) {
            include( 'class-api-vpoc-page.php' );
        }
    }

}

endif;

/**
 * Main instance of WP_API_Vuejs_PoC.
 * Returns the main instance of WAVP to prevent the need to use globals.
 */
function WAVP() {
    return WP_API_Vuejs_PoC::instance();
}

// Global for backwards compatibility.
$GLOBALS['wp-api-vuejs-poc'] = WAVP();

Class for Front End Page Request

In the class of the plugin entry point file above, the includes function contains a request type check. When the request is made from the front end, include the class file for the page. Let’s create that class file now, for example,

touch class-api-vpoc-page.php

Add the following php code to create the class. The constructor method is called on the newly-created class object where we are subscribing to events using hooks.

The action hook is called during the page processing event for script loading, at this point, call our page_scripts function to load the app javascript.

The filter hook is called during data processing, when the content is being loaded, call our page_content function to create the app bootstrap element.

class-api-vpoc-page.php
<?php

if ( ! defined( 'ABSPATH' ) ) {
	exit; // Exit if accessed directly
}

/**
 * WP_API_Vuejs_PoC_Page class.
 */
class WP_API_Vuejs_PoC_Page {

    /**
     * Access
     */
    private static $user_can = 'edit_posts';
    private static $page_slug = 'api-test';

    /**
     * Constructor.
     */
    public function __construct() {
        add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', array( $this, 'page_scripts' ) );
        add_filter( 'the_content', array( $this, 'page_content' ) );
    }

    public function page_scripts() {
        if ( is_page( self::$page_slug ) ) {
            // load the Vue.js app
            wp_enqueue_script( 'wp-api-vuejs-poc', WAVP_PLUGIN_URL . 'dist/build.js', array(), false, true );

            // localize data for script
            wp_localize_script( 'wp-api-vuejs-poc', 'wp_api_vuejs_poc', array(
                'rest_url' => esc_url_raw( rest_url() ),
                'nonce' => wp_create_nonce( 'wp_rest' ),
                'success' => __( 'Post submitted', 'wp-api-vuejs-poc' ),
                'failure' => __( 'Post could not be processed.', 'wp-api-vuejs-poc' ),
                'current_user_id' => get_current_user_id()
                )
            );
        }
    }

    public function page_content($content) {
        if ( is_page( self::$page_slug ) ) {
            // output only to logged in users who can edit posts
            if ( is_user_logged_in() && current_user_can( self::$user_can ) ) {
                // app bootstrap element
                ob_start();?>
                <div id="app"></div>
                <?php
                $content .= ob_get_clean();
            }else{
                $content .=  sprintf( '<a href="%1s">%2s</a>', esc_url( wp_login_url() ), __( 'Log in', 'wp-api-vuejs-poc' ) );
            }
        }

        return $content;
    }

}

return new WP_API_Vuejs_PoC_Page();

The next page covers the Vue.js front end.


Laravel JWT Auth with Vue.js 2

This post is a refresh of Laravel JWT Auth with Vue.js I posted in September that applies to the 1.x version of Vue.js. Evan You released vue.js version 2 shortly thereafter and this post will cover building the Laravel JSON Web Token based authentication with it.

February 11, 2017 – A lot has changed in the last 4 months with Vue.js and Webpack. Since Vue.js 2.1.x and Webpack 2.2.x were released last month, this post originally published in November has been updated for these new versions.

Included are some notes about refactoring the application from vue.js 1.x to version 2.1. Changes also include using NPM scripts with webpack version 2 for the front end build process instead of Elixir and Browserify.

Environment

For this tutorial, Laravel 5.2 has been installed locally and it is being served by XAMMP on Windows 10.

Command Line Tools
Nodejs version 6.9.4
NPM version 3.10.10
vue-cli version 2.8.1
git version 2.10.2

User Model

After setting the database connection parameters in env.php, run the database migration script to create the users, password_resets and migrations tables. In my Laravel application, I have moved the Users class into a Models folder.

php artisan migrate

mkdir app/Models

mv app/User.php app/Models

Edit app/Models/User.php, change the App namespace to App\Models.

User.php
<?php

namespace App\Models;

use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;

class User extends Authenticatable
{
    ...

  • Throughout this tutorial you will encounter an ellipsis … in the code examples. These are not a part of the code and are there only to denote code that is being skipped and not applicable to the example. To view the entire file, examine the source code.

Edit, config/auth.php. Update the authentication drivers user provider for the App\Models\User namespace change as follows.

auth.php
'providers' => [
    'users' => [
        'driver' => 'eloquent',
        'model' => App\Models\User::class,
    ],

    ...

Webpack Vue.js CLI

A simple webpack vue-loader setup is being used for the front end build process. First step is to install vue-cli globally.

npm install -g vue-cli
  • If you have an older version of vue-cli, you will need to update it to version 2.8.
npm update -g vue-cli

Using vue-cli from the laravel root directory, install the webpack-simple template into the existing laravel resources folder.

vue init webpack-simple resources

After the webpack-simple template has been installed. Change to the resources directory and run the npm install. This will install vue 2.1.x, vue-loader, vue-template-compiler, webpack 2.2.x and other dependencies. For details, inspect the install manifest resources/package.json.

cd resources

npm i
  • For example, the vue-cli 2.8.0 release from January, 2017 installs vue 2.1.10, vue-loader 10.0.2, vue-template-compiler 2.1.10 and webpack 2.2.0.

Vue Router and Components

Install the router for vue.js 2.x.

npm i vue-router --save-dev

Create a resources/assets/components folder and add an empty App.vue, Dashboard.vue, Home.vue, Register.vue and Signin.vue component.

mkdir assets/components

touch assets/components/App.vue

touch assets/components/Dashboard.vue

touch assets/components/Home.vue

touch assets/components/Register.vue

touch assets/components/Signin.vue

Add the following code to the App.vue base layout component. The new <router-link> component replaces the the deprecated v-link directive from vue.js 1.x.

App.vue
<template>
    <div class="panel panel-default">
        <div class="panel-heading">
            <nav>
                <ul class="list-inline">
                    <li>
                        <router-link :to="{ name: 'home' }">Home</router-link>
                    </li>
                    <li class="pull-right">
                        <router-link :to="{ name: 'register' }">Register</router-link>
                    </li>
                </ul>
            </nav>
        </div>
        <div class="panel-body">
            <router-view></router-view>
        </div>
    </div>
</template>

Add the following code to the Home.vue component.

Home.vue
<template>
    <h1>Laravel 5</h1>
</template>

Add the following code to the Register.vue component. Note the change from version 1.0 of this component. A div has been added at the root of the template since components now must have exactly one root element.

Register.vue
<template>
    <div>
        <div class="alert alert-danger" v-if="error && !success">
            <p>There was an error, unable to complete registration.</p>
        </div>
        <div class="alert alert-success" v-if="success">
            <p>Registration completed. You can now sign in.</p>
        </div>
        <form autocomplete="off" v-on:submit="register" v-if="!success">
            <div class="form-group" v-bind:class="{ 'has-error': error && response.username }">
                <label for="name">Name</label>
                <input type="text" id="name" class="form-control" v-model="name" required>
                <span class="help-block" v-if="error && response.name">{{ response.name }}</span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group" v-bind:class="{ 'has-error': error && response.email }">
                <label for="email">E-mail</label>
                <input type="email" id="email" class="form-control" placeholder="gavin.belson@hooli.com" v-model="email" required>
                <span class="help-block" v-if="error && response.email">{{ response.email }}</span>
            </div>
            <div class="form-group" v-bind:class="{ 'has-error': error && response.password }">
                <label for="password">Password</label>
                <input type="password" id="password" class="form-control" v-model="password" required>
                <span class="help-block" v-if="error && response.password">{{ response.password }}</span>
            </div>
            <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Submit</button>
        </form>
    </div>
</template>

JavaScript

Create a resources/assets/js folder for the JavaScript.

mkdir assets/js

Create a resources/assets/js/app.js JavaScript file.

touch assets/js/app.js

Add the following code to the app.js file to require vue modules, import vue components and define the router. Exporting will allow other modules in this project to import them.

Note the changes between version 1.0 of app.js.

  1. router.map has been replaced with an array on the new routes option.
  2. router is passed to the new Vue instance as option since starting an app with routing no longer requires a special method.
app.js
var Vue = require('vue');
var VueRouter = require('vue-router');

import App from '../components/App.vue';
import Dashboard from '../components/Dashboard.vue';
import Home from '../components/Home.vue';
import Register from '../components/Register.vue';
import Signin from '../components/Signin.vue';

Vue.use(VueRouter);

export default Vue;

export var router = new VueRouter({
    routes: [
        {
            path: '/',
            name: 'home',
            component: Home
        },
        {
            path: '/register',
            name: 'register',
            component: Register
        }
    ]
});

new Vue({
    el: '#app',
    router: router,
    render: app => app(App)
});

Web Page

Edit the resources/views/welcome.blade.php template.

Replace the entire contents of the file with this markup.

welcome.blade.php
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <meta name="csrf-token" content="{!! csrf_token() !!}">
    <title>Laravel</title>

    <link href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet" integrity="sha384-BVYiiSIFeK1dGmJRAkycuHAHRg32OmUcww7on3RYdg4Va+PmSTsz/K68vbdEjh4u" crossorigin="anonymous">

</head>
<body>
    <div class="container">
        <div id="app"></div>
    </div>
    <script src="/js/app.js"></script>
</body>
</html>

Webpack

Edit the resources/webpack.config.js entry and output values.

REPLACE
module.exports = {
  entry: './src/main.js',
  output: {
    path: path.resolve(__dirname, './dist'),
    publicPath: '/dist/',
    filename: 'build.js'
  },
  ...
}
WITH
module.exports = {
  entry: './assets/js/app.js',
  output: {
    path: path.resolve(__dirname, '../public/js'),
    publicPath: '/js/',
    filename: 'app.js'
  },
  ...
}

Test drive the updated webpack configuration with the npm build script.

npm run build

Your build output should be similar to this. The laravel public folder should now contain js/app.js and a respective js/app.js.map source map.

> resources@ build C:\xampp\htdocs\laravel\resources
> cross-env NODE_ENV=production webpack --progress --hide-modules

Hash: 260fd0b01225d3f55a16
Version: webpack 2.2.1
Time: 6031ms
     Asset    Size  Chunks             Chunk Names
    app.js  118 kB       0  [emitted]  main
app.js.map  884 kB       0  [emitted]  main
Laravel JWT Auth Vue.js 2.0 Home Page

The next page covers Vue Resource for request handling, Form Request Validation, API authorization with JWT Auth, User endpoint and Sign in.


Vue.js CLI Webpack Laravel Proof of Concept

This post is a simple proof of concept for using vue-cli to scaffold a Webpack Laravel project. The production build modifies the default Laravel blade view and outputs the built assets into the public/static directory. The development workflow demonstrates hot reloading and css style extraction.

Environment

This example was created using a fresh install of Laravel 5.2 served by XAMMP on Windows 10.
Nodejs version 6.9.1
NPM version 3.10.8
vue-cli version 2.4.0
git version 2.7.0

Development

Change to the laravel directory. For example,

cd c:/xampp/htdocs/laravel

Use vue-cli to download vuejs, wepbpack and template dependencies and create the project in the laravel/resources folder.

vue init webpack resources

Change to the resources directory.

cd resources

Install node modules with npm install or npm i.

npm i

Run development server.

  • Check the dev.port in resources/config/index.js to make sure it is not the same as the port used by the XAMPP Apache server.
npm run dev

Update the /resources/src/components/Hello.vue vue commponent to see the hot reloading take place. In the script portion of the component, change the msg value. For example, ‘Welcome to Your Vue.js Laravel App’.

Hello.vue
<script>
export default {
  name: 'hello',
  data () {
    return {
      msg: 'Welcome to Your Vue.js Laravel App'
    }
  }
}
</script>
  • For development on Laravel sever generated pages, another solution is to update the package.json scripts property so the npm run dev command runs webpack development compilation with watch mode enabled. Watch mode recompiles after every change is saved.
package.json
"dev": "cross-env NODE_ENV=development webpack --watch --progress --colors"

Production

Edit /resources/config/index.js. Update the build paths so the welcome.blade.php view gets the index markup and the assets are built to the public/static folder.

index.js
build: {
    ...
    index: path.resolve(__dirname, '../views/welcome.blade.php'),
    assetsRoot: path.resolve(__dirname, '../../public'),
  • The ellipsis … in the snippet above is not a part of the code and is there only to denote lines that are skipped and not applicable to the example.

Run production build.

npm run build

Manually refresh the laravel.dev page served by XAMPP to verify the production build.

Resources